France is Europe’s leading producer of oak. More widespread than all other species of hardwood in France, oak accounts for 5 530 000 ha of French forest. Oak are tall, slow growing, long lived trees, up to 40 meters in height, with straight trunks, up to one meter in diameter. Harvesting begins at around 150 years of age.
Oak sapwood is clear and easy to distinguish from the yellowish-brown heartwood. It is mainly a straight grain timber with heterogeneous structure.
Oak heartwood has a naturally high durability enabling it to be used without any treatment as Class 3 timber (exposed to weathering). Sapwood is easy to trat and after impregnation can be used as Class 4 timber (in contact with water).
Physical and mechanical properties
Oak is a dense wood, moderately hard and moderately heavy, with a good level of stability (expansion/contraction is minimal). The wood is regular, with short fibres offering a good level of compression resistance.
|Average density||710 kg/mᶟ|
|Total average volumetric shrinkage||15.3 %|
|Brinell hardness perpendicular to the fibres||32 N/mm²|
|Modulus of rupture under bending||97 MPa|
|Breaking stress under axial compression||58 MPa|
|Modulus of longitudinal elasticity under bending||12 500 MPa|
Conditions of implementation
Grading of Oak / Sawn Timber
Appearance grading/European standard EN 975-1
Strength class/French standard NFB 52-001
Thanks to its easy machining oak is the wood of choice for cabinet makers, joiners and interior designers. French oak is often used to create beautiful, high performance, solid strip hardwood flooring ideal for hallways, living rooms and kitchens. Oak beams are favoured in building traditional framework, to form the centrepiece of period refurbishment, or to add charm to a new property. Oak is also very appreciated in wine barrel production as well as for exterior use as decking, pilings and in the manufacture of railway sleepers.
Want to add a personal touch to your home? Then get creative to add style that’s one of a kind to your home. Patchwork, knitting and crochet can all be used to add chic soft furnishings and accessories to your home, from cushions to throws and more. If you are new to crafting there’s lots of advice available online including helpful craft tutorials. Also take a make do and mend approach to upcycling existing pieces in your home with paint, decoupage or fabric.
Try out different paint effects to give your home a new look, try rag rolling, stippling or marbling. If you’re handy with a paint brush and eager to let your inner artist out, then consider painting a trompe l’oeil effect on a wall. Remember you could simply project an image onto a wall and paint around it – you don’t need to be a great artist to have a go at this. So get your paint brushes out and get creative.
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“If you elect to have off-peak (heures creuses) electricity, then EDF will provide you with wiring controlled by their equipment to switch your off-peak system on and off. The EDF off-peak equipment is usually a relay located beside their meter and fusegear. This relay is meant for the control circuit functions of your contactor (contacteur) or off-peak relay (jour/nuit) only. It must not be used to directly control equipment. The EDF relay is timed to operate in the usual manner at the predetermined off-peak times”
Excerpt From: Thomas Malcolm. “Electricity in your French house.” iBooks. https://itunes.apple.com/gb/book/electricity-in-your-french-house/id413215097?mt=11
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